CBNT-DT, CBC-TV, St. John's
Canadian Broadcasting Corp.
Canadian Broadcasting Corp.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation opened CBNT Channel 8 on October 1. Until this time, CJON-TV had operated as a CBC affiliate. The CBC also owned CBN-AM in St. John’s. The CBC’s first television station in Newfoundland was CBYT at Corner Brook. It had been on the air since 1959.
On April 29, CBNT-1 Port Rexton was launched.
CBNT-2 Placentia went on the air on November 27.
On November 30, CBNT-3 Marystown began broadcasting.
By this time, CBNT Channel 8 operated with an effective radiated powr of 196,000 watts video and 98,000 watts audio.
On December 21, CBNAT Grand Falls signed on.
CBNT-4 St. Albans was launched on January 19.
On May 28, CBNT-TV received approval to operate a transmitter at Ramea, operating on channel 13 with a transmitter power of 5 watts (directional). The transmitter would receive programming off the air from CBNT-3 Marystown.
On September 15, CBNAT-1 Baie Verte was launched.
On September 15, television viewers in the Maritimes and Newfoundland began seeing CBC network programs an hour earlier. Because of time zone differences these viewers had long been seeing programs at a later hour than other parts of the country. The network was now showing its programs at local times, corresponding whenever possible, to scheduling elsewhere in Canada. The change was thanks to video tape recording equipment for television, with instant replay for programs - colour and black & white. The CBC Halifax video tape centre was the key point for the operation with microwave facilities being used during the night hours to feed programs from Toronto for showing the following day. The national newscast produced live in Toronto for transmission directly via closed circuit microwave to Halifax for viewers in the Maritimes and Newfoundland who would now see it at 11 p.m. Atlantic Time and 11:30 Newfoundland Time. A second edition of the newscast was then transmitted an hour later (11 p.m. Eastern Time) for viewing in Central Canada.
On October 18, a rebroadcast transmitter was approved for Baie Verte. It would receive programming over the air from CBNAT in Grand Falls. A frontier coverage package transmitter was approved for St. Anthony on channel 12. A transmitter was also approved for Churchill Falls, on channel 9. It would broadcast programming on a delayed basis.
CBTC-1 St. Anthony (later CBNAT-4) was launched on October 21. It was followed on December 25 by CBNLT-1 Churchill Falls.
The CBC received approval to operate a rebroadcast transmitter at Englee, on channel 7 with effective radiated power of 1,970 watts video and 400 watts audio – directional – with an antenna height of 655 feet. It would receive programming over-the-air from CBNAT-1 at Baie Verte.
Rebroadcast transmitter CBTC-TV-1 at St. Anthony was authorized to move from channel 12 to channel 4 and to increase power from 5 watts directional to an effective radiated power of 6,320 watts video and 1,270 watts audio, directional. It now received programming on video tape. Under the change, it would now receive programming directly over-the-air from the above approved Englee transmitter.
A rebroadcast transmitter was approved for Churchill Falls. It would broadcast on channel 13 with a power of five watts and broadcast CBC programming on a delayed basis.
A transmitter was approved for Buchans on channel 7 with power of 340 watts video and 34 watts audio – directional antenna with height of 573 feet. It would receive its programming from CBNAT Grand Falls.
A new transmitter was approved for operation at Millertown, operating on channel 7 with five watts (directional) of power, receiving programs from CBNAT Grand Falls.
The Buchans rebroadcaster (channel 7 with 340 watts video and 34 watts directional) was authorized to move to channel 13 with five watts of power, directional. It would change its program source from CBNAT Grand Falls to the newly authorized Millertown transmitter.
CBNAT-4 St. Anthony, presently operating on channel 12 with 5 watts of power with directional antenna height of 334 feet (authorized for channel 4 with 6,320 watts video and 1,270 watts audio with directional antenna height of 591 feet) received approval to operate on channel 6 with effective radiated power of 6,540 watts video and 650 watts audio, using an antenna height (directional) of 591 feet. It would continue to receive its programming from CBNAT-1 Baie Verte. It was previously authorized to receive programming from the new transmitter at Englee.
CBNAT-2 Buchans and CBNAT-5 Millertown signed on March 23.
Rebroadcast transmitters were approved for Conche, operating on channel 13 with 144 watts video and 14.4 watts audio, using a directional antenna from a 462 foot tower. It would receive programming from CBNAT-1 Baie Verte. A transmitter at Fogo Island would broadcast on channel 2 with five watts of power (directional), also receiving its program feed from CBNAT-1. A Mount St. Margaret transmitter would rebroadcast CBNAT-4 St. Anthony and operate on channel 9 with 21,000 watts video and 4,000 watts audio (directional) from an 850 foot tower. Musgrave Harbour would get a transmitter using channel 7 with 135 watts video and 27 watts audio (directional) from a 438 foot tower. Its programming would be received from CBNAT Grand Falls.
CBNT received approval to operate transmitters at Fermeuse (channel 11, five watts, directional) and St. Mary's (channel 10, 670 watts video & 130 watts audio, directional, 382 foot tower). Both would receive programming directly from CBNT St. John's.
CBNAT-9 Mount St. Margaret received approval to increase effective radiated power from 21,000 watts video and 4,000 watts audio to 29,000 watts video and 2,900 watts audio, and to increase antenna height from 850 feet to 931 feet. A transmitter was approved for Fox Harbour (channel 7) to rebroadcast CBNAT-4 St. Anthony.
CBNAT-6 Fogo Island was launched on July 4.
On August 10, CBNAT-8 went on the air at Conche.
The CBC acquired CFLA-TV Goose Bay. It also purchased CJCL-TV at Labrador City and changed the call letters to CBNLT.
On November 30, CBNT-5 Fermeuse and CBNAT-9 Mount St. Margaret were opened.
CBNT-6 went on the air at St. Marys on January 4.
On November 17, CBNAT-11 Musgrave Harbour signed on the air.
CBNT received authorization for transmitters at Clarenville (channel 7 - 350 watts), Elliston (ch 4 - 5 watts), Little Hearts Ease (ch 11 - 5 watts), Northwest Brook (ch 4 - 5 watts), St. Jones Within (ch 9 - 5 watts), and Wesleyville (ch 5 - 204 watts).
CBNT-10 Clarenville, CBNT-11 Northwest Brook and CBNT-18 Hickman’s Harbour opened November 2.
On November 6, CBNT-8 Little Hearts Ease and CBNT-12 St. Jones Within signed on the air.
CBNT-9 Wesleyville and CBNT-16 Trinity/Wareham opened on November 17.
On November 25, CBNT-7 Elliston, CBNT-13 Glovertown, CBNT-14 Gambo/Middle Brook and CBNT-17 Musgravetown went on the air.
CBNT-20 Lumsden was opened on December 7.
On December 22, CBNT-22 Harbour Breton and CBNT-23 Belleoram opened.
CBNT-21 Cartwright was launched on March 31.
On July 15, CBNT-26 St. Vincent’s opened.
CBNT-19 Random Island opened on August 27.
On December 3, CBNT-24 Hermitage and CBNT-25 Ramea went on the air.
CBNAT-10 Fox Harbour opened December 15.
CBNAT-13 Springdale opened December 23.
On December 31, CBNAT-12 Port Hope Simpson was opened.
CBNT-27 Bay L’argent and CBNT-28 St. Lawrence were started on January 26.
On February 7, CBNAT-22 Roddickton was launched.
CBNT-33 Fortune opened on March 23.
On March 30, CBNAT-17 Pacquet/Woodstock, CBNAT-18 Brent’s Cove, CBNAT-19 Harbour Round, CBNAT-20 Fleur De Lys and CBNAT-21 La Scie signed on.
CBNAT-15 Seal Cove opened March 31.
CBNT-29 Harbour Mille, CBNT-30 St. Bernard’s, CBNT-34 Lord’s Cove, CBNT-35 Lamaline and CBNT-36 Lawn opened on January 18.
On January 22, CBNT-37 Petty Harbour and CBNT-38 Ferryland opened.
CBNAT-16 Coachman’s Cove was opened on March 14.
The CBC had a plan to improve CBNT’s signal (channel 8) in parts of St. John’s. The Corporation planned to add a rebroadcast transmitter in the city. It would operate on channel 12 with an effective radiated video power of 60 watts. On December 1, 1978, the CRTC deferred a decision on this application. Finally on February 21, 1980, the Commission denied the application.
By this time, CBNT was operating with an effective radiated power of 196,000 watts video and 39,200 watts audio. Studios and offices were located at 95 University Avenue.
On April 1, CBNAT-14 Ming’s Bight signed on.
CBNT-32 Port Blandford opened on September 26.
On January 18, CBNAT-23 Hampden opened.
CBNT-39 Trepassey opened May 21.
On December 14, CBNT-41 Sunnyside opened.
CBNT-40 Riverhead opened July 20.
On January 11, the CRTC renewed CBNT-TV's licence until September 30, 1985.
On February 13, the CRTC approved the application to amend the licence for CBNAT-11 Musgrave Harbour by increasing the power from 8.9 watts (transmitter power) to 946 watts (effective radiated power). This power increase would improve the service to the Aspen Cove and Laddle Cove areas. The signal of CBNAT-11 would now be partially available to the southeast coastal area of Fogo Island, which was not covered by CBNAT-6 Fogo Island.
CBNAT-7 Carmanville opened on December 31.
On October 2, CBNT-14 Gambo/Middle Brook was granted an increase in transmitter power from 8.9 watts to 10 watts.
CBNAT Baie Verte was authorized to increase power from 3,400 watts to 8,800 watts.
Jim Byrd left CBNT as director of TV to become program director at CBLT Toronto.
On January 29, CBNT-3 Marystown was granted an increase in effective radiated power from 22,500 watts to 50,800 watts. The increase would provide better coverage in the Marystown area and improve the over-the-air signal levels at several CBNT-3 repeaters.
On the same date, CBNT-20 Lumsden was authorized to increase transmitter power from 8.9 watts to 10 watts.
On February 22, authorization was granted for a change of program source for CBNLT-1 Churchill Falls, from CBNLT Labrador City, to the CBC television network received via satellite and local programs produced by CBNT St. John's. The CBC said the change was necessary because the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway Company Inc. would abandon its microwave facilities on February 9. These facilities provided the feed to Churchill Falls.
Local news programming came to an end on CBYT Corner Brook due to budget cuts. CBNT would now provide coverage of the Corner Brook area and the Newfoundland west coast using reporters and staff located in Corner Brook. CFLA-TV Goose Bay and CBNLT Labrador City became rebroadcasting transmitters of CBNT. CBYT did not become a rebroadcaster of CBNT. It maintained master control in Corner Brook, allowing it to continue to broadcast station identification, public service announcements, occasional specials, and commercial messages.
On June 10, CBNT-21 Cartwright was authorized to increase transmitter power from 8.9 watts to 10 watts and to relocate the transmitter from the Newfoundland Telephone Company Ltd. site to the existing AM facilities site at Cartwright.
On July 19, the CBC was authorized to change the program source for CBYT-3 Bonne Bay, CBYT-6 Cow Head, CBYT-7 Trout River, CBYT-8 Portland Creek, and CBYT-9 Hawkes Bay, from CBYT Corner Brook to the CBC Northern Television Services and CBNT St. John's. The CBC said the provision of signals by satellite would improve technical quality while reducing costs.
CBC Television dropped local newscasts at five Newfoundland stations. News would now originate in St. John's and be augmented by reports from the other stations, with no staff cuts.
On August 25, approval was granted for the change of program source for CBNT-21 Cartwright, from CBNT to programs received via satellite from the CBC Northern Television Service.
On December 20, CBNT was authorized to reduce the power for CBNT-35 Lamaline, from an effective radiated power of 6,420 watts to a transmitter power of 100 watts.
As of 2000, CBNT operated the following transmitters: CBNAT-1 Baie Verte, CBNAT-24 Baie Verte, CBNT-27 Bay L'Argent, CBNT-23 Belleoram, CBNAT-18 Brent's Cove, CBNAT-2 Buchans, CBNAT-7 Carmanville, CBNT-10 Clarenville, CBNAT-16 Coachman's Cove, CBNAT-8 Conche, CBNT-7 Elliston, CBNT-5 Fermeuse, CBNT-38 Ferryland, CBNAT-20 Fleur de Lys, CBNAT-6 Fogo Island, CBNT-33 Fortune, CBNAT-10 Fox Harbour, CBNT-14 Gambo/Middle Brook, CBNT-13 Glovertown, CFLA-TV Goose Bay, CBNAT Grand Falls, CBNAT-23
Hampden, CBNT-22 Harbour Breton, CBNT-29 Harbour Mille, CBNAT-19 Harbour Round, CBNT-24 Hermitage, CBNT-18 Hickman's Harbour, CBNLT Labrador City/Wabush, CBNT-35 Lamaline, CBNAT-21 La Scie, CBNT-36 Lawn, CBNT-8 Little Hearts Ease, CBNT-34 Lord's Cove, CBNT-20 Lumsden, CBNT-3 Marystown, CBNAT-5 Millertown, CBNAT-14 Ming's Bight, CBNAT-9 Mount St. Margaret, CBNAT-11 Musgrave Harbour, CBNT -17 Musgravetown, CBNT-11 Northwest Brook, CBNAT-17 Pacquet/Woodstock, CBNT-37 Petty Harbour, CBNT-2 Placentia, CBNT-32 Port Blandford, CBNAT-12 Port Hope Simpson, CBNT-1 Port Rexton, CBNT-25 Ramea, CBNT-19 Random Island, CBNT-40 Riverhead, CBNAT-22 Roddickton, CBNAT-15 Seal Cove, CBNAT-13 Springdale, CBNT-4 St. Albans, CBNAT-4 St. Anthony, CBNT-30 St. Bernard's, CBNT-12 St. Jones Within, CBNT-28 St. Lawrence, CBNT-6 St. Mary's, CBNT-26 St. Vincent's, CBNT-41 Sunnyside, CBNT-31 Swift Current, CBNT-39 Trepassey, CBNT-16 Trinity/Wareham, CBNT-15 Dover/Hare Bay/Wellington, CBNT-9 Wesleyville,
Newfoundland, and CBMRT Fermont, Quebec.
On November 16, CBNT was given approval to add a second transmitter at St. John's, operating on channel 12, with a transmitter power of 50 watts. This transmitter would provide a solution to the problem of poor reception in some areas of the downtown core.
On the same date, CBNT received permission to decrease the effective radiated power for CBNT-2 Placentia, from 11,000 watts to 10,600 watts.
On July 5, CBNT St. John’s was given approval to add the following transmitters: CBYT Corner Brook, CBYT-1 Stephenville, CBYT-2 Irishtown, CBYT-4 Port-aux-Basques, CBYT-5 St. Andrews, CBYT-10 Harbour Le Cou, CBYT-11 Rose Blanche, CBYT-12 Gillams, CBYT-13 Lark Harbour, CBYT-14 York Harbour and CBYAT Deer Lake. CBYT no longer had any local component and fully simulcast CBNT so there was no need for CBYT and its transmitters to be licensed separately from CBNT.
On October 11, CBNT-42 went on the air in St. John’s to boost the main CBNT signal in parts of the city.
On June 16, CBNT was granted licences for rebroadcast transmitters at Bonne Bay (CBYT-3 channel 2, effective radiated power of 1,848 watts), Cartwright (CBNT-21 channel 9 with transmitter power of 10 watts), Churchill Falls (CBNLT-1 channel 9, TP of 8.9 watts), Cow Head (CBYT-6 channel 8 with ERP of 4,300 watts), Hawkes Bay (CBYT-9 channel 4 with ERP of 1,100 watts), Portland Creek (CBYT-8 channel 13 with ERP of 1,944 watts) and Trout River (CBYT-7 channel 13 with TP of 8.9 watts). These transmitters already existed as radiocommunication distribution undertakings, which rebroadcast the programming of the CBC Northern Television Service. With improvements in satellite feed technology the CBC could now provide these communities with the full CBNT St. John’s program schedule.
On April 5, CBNT was authorized to operate transmitters at Hopedale (CBNHT – on air since September 25, 1981), Makkovik (CBNMT – September 25, 1981), Nain (CBNBT – November 21, 1975) and Postville (CBNPT – September 25, 1981). These transmitters were already operated by the CBC as radiocommunication distribution undertakings, which rebroadcast the programming of the CBC Northern Television Service. Because of improvements in satellite feed technology, the CBC was now able to provide these communities with the full CBNT program schedule.
CBNT operated the following transmitters: CBNAT Grand Falls, CBNAT-1 Baie Verte, CBNAT-10 Fox Harbour, CBNAT-11 Musgrave Harbour, CBNAT-12 Port Hope Simpson, CBNAT-13 Springdale, CBNAT-14 Ming's Bight, CBNAT-15 Seal Cove (White Bay), CBNAT-16 Coachman's Cove, CBNAT-17 Pacquet/Woodstock, CBNAT-18 Brent's Cove, CBNAT-19 Harbour Round, CBNAT-2 Buchans, CBNAT-20 Fleur de Lys, CBNAT-21 La Scie, CBNAT-22 Roddickton, CBNAT-23 Hampden, CBNAT-24 Baie Verte, CBNAT-4 St. Anthony, CBNAT-5 Millertown, CBNAT-6 Fogo Island, CBNAT-7 Carmanville, CBNAT-8 Conche, CBNAT-9 Mount St. Margaret, CBNBT Nain, CBNHT Hopedale, CBNMT Makkovik, CBNPT Potsville, CBNLT Labrador City, CBNLT-1 Churchill Falls, CBNT-1 Port Rexton, CBNT-10 Clarenville, CBNT-11 North West Brook, CBNT-12 St. Jones Within, CBNT-13 Glovertown, CBNT-14 Gambo/Middle Brook, CBNT-15 Wellington/Hare Bay, CBNT-16 Trinity/Wareham, CBNT-17 Musgravetown, CBNT-18 Hickman's Harbour, CBNT-19 Random Island, CBNT-2 Placentia, CBNT-20 Lumsden, CBNT-21 Cartwright, CBNT-22 Harbour Breton, CBNT-23 Belleoram, CBNT-24 Hermitage, CBNT-25 Ramea, CBNT-26 St. Vincent's, CBNT-27 Bay l'Argent, CBNT-28 St. Lawrence, CBNT-29 Harbour Mille, CBNT-3 Marystown, CBNT-30 St. Bernard's, CBNT-31 Swift Current, CBNT-32 Port Blandford, CBNT-33 Fortune, CBNT-34 Lord's Cove, CBNT-35 Lamaline, CBNT-36 Lawn, CBNT-37 Petty Harbour, CBNT-38 Ferryland, CBNT-39 Trepassey, CBNT-4 St. Alban's, CBNT-40 Riverhead, CBNT-41 Sunnyside, CBNT-42 St. John's, CBNT-5 Fermeuse, CBNT-6 St. Mary's, CBNT-7 Elliston, CBNT-8 Little Hearts Ease, CBNT-9 Wesleyville, CBYT-10 Harbour Le Cou, CBYT-3 Bonne Bay, CBYT-6 Cow Head, CBYT-7 Trout River, CBYT-8 Portland Creek, CBYT-9 Hawkes Bay, CFLA-TV Goose Bay, No Call Sign St. John's, CBYT Corner Brook, CBYT-1 Stephenville, CBYT-2 Irishtown, CBYT-4 Port-aux-Basques, CBYT-5 St. Andrew's, CBYT-11 Rose Blanche, CBYT-12 Gillams, CBYT-13 Lark Harbour and CBYT-14 York Harbour. Quebec: CBMRT Fermont.
On March 29, the CRTC administratively renewed the licence for CBNT-TV until August 31, 2012. The Commission noted that it did not intend to renew authorizations for full-power analog transmitters operating in the mandatory markets or on channels 52 to 69 outside the mandatory markets beyond August 31, 2011. By that time, the Commission expected licensees to have the necessary authority to broadcast in digital. In addition, the Commission imposed the following condition of licence on stations that operated in mandatory markets or on channels 52 to 69 outside the mandatory markets: Unless otherwise authorized by the Commission, the licensee shall not transmit analog television signals after 31 August 2011 in mandatory markets designated as such by the Commission in Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2011-184 or transmit television signals on channels 52 to 69. The CRTC also noted that pursuant to Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2010-69, it did not intend to renew authorizations to operate transitional digital transmitters included in these licences, beyond August 31, 2011.
The CRTC approved the amendment to the licence of CBNT-TV to add a post-transition digital television transmitter on channel 8 with a maximum effective radiated power of 16,170 watts (8,870 watts average). A directional antenna would be used from the existing CBC tower.
The analog to digital conversion deadline for mandatory markets was August 31. CBNT-TV channel 8 became CBNT-DT channel 8 (virtual 8.1) on this date.
The CRTC approved an amendment to the licence for CBNT-DT St. John's by deleting the transmitter CBNT-TV-42 St. John's.
Marc Riddell, formerly of CBC Ottawa, was the new Managing Editor at CBC St. John's. He succeeded Janice Stein who moved to CBC Yellowknife. Riddell was the developer and Executive Producer of Power & Politics.
On July 17, the CRTC announced that effective 1 August 2012, it would revoke the broadcasting licences for CBIT Sydney and CBKST Saskatoon and their transmitters. The Commission also approved the request to amend the licences for 23 English- and French-language television stations operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in order that reference to all analog transmitters be deleted. The CBC planned to cease operation of all these transmitters on 31 July 2012.
The licences for the following transmitters were removed from the CBNT-DT licence: CBNAT-1 Baie Verte, CBNAT-24 Baie Verte, CBNT-27 Bay l'Argent, CBNT-23 Belleoram, CBYT-3 Bonne Bay, CBNAT-18 Brent's Cove, CBNAT-2 Buchans, CBNAT-7 Carmanville, CBNT-21 Cartwright, CBNLT-1 Churchill Falls, CBNT-10 Clarenville, CBNAT-16 Coachman's Cove, CBNAT-8 Conche, CBYT Corner Brook, CBYT-6 Cow Head, CBYAT Deer Lake, CBNT-7 Elliston, CBNT-5 Fermeuse, CBMRT Fermont (QC), CBNT-38 Ferryland, CBNAT-20 Fleur de Lys, CBNAT-6 Fogo Island, CBNT-33 Fortune, CBNAT-10 Fox Harbour, CBNT-14 Gambo/Middle Brook, CBYT-12 Gillams, CBNT-13 Glovertown, CFLA-TV Goose Bay, CBNAT Grand Falls, CBNAT-23 Hampden, CBNT-22 Harbour Breton, CBYT-10 Harbour Le Cou, CBNT-29 Harbour Mille, CBNAT-19 Harbour Round, CBYT-9 Hawkes Bay, CBNT-24 Hermitage, CBNT-18 Hickman's Harbour, CBNHT Hopedale, CBYT-2 Irishtown, CBNAT-21La Scie, CBNLT Labrador City, CBNT-35 Lamaline, CBYT-13 Lark Harbour, CBNT-36 Lawn, CBNT-8 Little Hearts Ease, CBNT-34 Lord's Cove, CBNT-20 Lumsden, CBNMT Makkovik, CBNT-3 Marystown, CBNAT-5 Millertown, CBNAT-14 Ming's Bight, CBNAT-9 Mount St. Margaret, CBNAT-11 Musgrave Harbour, CBNT-17 Musgravetown, CBNBT Nain, CBNT-11 North West Brook, CBNAT-17 Pacquet/Woodstock, CBNT-37 Petty Harbour, CBNT-2 Placentia, CBNT-32 Port Blandford, CBNAT-12 Port Hope Simpson, CBNT-1 Port Rexton, CBYT-4 Port-aux-Basques, CBYT-8 Portland Creek, CBNPT Postville, CBNT-25 Ramea, CBNT-19 Random Island, CBNT-40 Riverhead, CBNAT-22 Roddickton, CBYT-11 Rose Blanche, CBNAT-15 Seal Cove (White Bay), CBNAT-13 Springdale, CBNT-4 St. Alban's, CBYT-5 St. Andrew's, CBNAT-4 St. Anthony, CBNT-30 St. Bernard's, CBNT-12 St. Jones Within, CBNT-28 St. Lawrence, CBNT-6 St. Mary's, CBNT-26 St. Vincent's, CBYT-1 Stephenville, CBNT-41 Sunnyside, CBNT-31 Swift Current, CBNT-39 Trepassey, CBNT-16 Trinity/Wareham, CBYT-7 Trout River, CBNT-15 Wellington/Hare Bay, CBNT-9 Wesleyville, and CBYT-14 York Harbour.
Bill Kelly (71) died February 15. He hosted Land & Sea for eight seasons in the 1980s and 1990s.
Katherine Kennedy Housser (70) died September 10. She joined CBC Radio and TV in St. John’s in 1975, and remained with CBC as a journalist and network news producer until her retirement in 2008.